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## How is Q-learning combined with function approximation?

Q-learning can be combined with function approximation. This makes it possible to apply the algorithm to larger problems, even when the state space is continuous. One solution is to use an (adapted) artificial neural network as a function approximator.

## What is the update rule for Q-learning?

The off-policy Q-learning algorithm has the update rule defined by where rt + 1 is the reward observed after performing at in st, and where αt ( s, a ), with all α ∈ [0, 1], is the learning rate which may be the same for all pairs. Q-learning algorithm has problems with big numbers of continuous states and discrete actions.

## Which is the result of a Q-learning algorithm?

(2) Policy — This is the result of the learning. Given a State of the Environment, the Policy will tell us how best to Interact with it so as to maximize the Rewards. (3) Interact — This is nothing but the “Actions” the algorithm should recommend we take under different circumstances.

## How is Q learning based on a state?

Q-learning is based on a state–action function in which the value of an action at the current state depends on two things: (i) the direct reward and (ii) the value of the future states that the action would lead to.

## How is double Q learning used in reinforcement learning?

Double Q-learning is an off-policy reinforcement learning algorithm, where a different policy is used for value evaluation than what is used to select the next action. In practice, two separate value functions are trained in a mutually symmetric fashion using separate experiences, Q A {\\displaystyle Q^ {A}}. and.

## How is the weight of a Q-learning table calculated?

Q-Learning table of states by actions that is initialized to zero, then each cell is updated through training. steps into the future the agent will decide some next step. The weight for this step is calculated as