What is counterfactual regret Minimization?

What is counterfactual regret Minimization?

Abstract. Counterfactual Regret Minimization (CFR) is a popular, iterative algorithm for computing strategies in extensive-form games. The Monte Carlo CFR (MCCFR) variants reduce the per iteration time cost of CFR by traversing a smaller, sampled portion of the tree.

Is counterfactual thinking bad?

Sometimes counterfactual thoughts are painful and even debilitating, such as when a person thinks, after a tragic accident, about how he or she should have told his or her best friend to wear a seat belt. In such cases, the counterfactual invites self-blame, which can make the anguish of a bad situation even worse.

What is a decision making framework?

Decision frameworks refer to principles, processes, and practices to proceed from information and desires to choices that inform actions and outcomes (Lockie and Rockloff, 2005).

Is counterfactual thinking good or bad?

Overall, counterfactual reasoning is a common mental process that is unavoidable and natural. It can make us improve our decisions and our mood, yet also increase our susceptibility to bias.

What are the positive and negative effects of counterfactual thinking?

Counterfactual thoughts have been shown to produce negative emotions, however they may also produce functional or beneficial effects. Ideas that create a more negative outcome are downward counterfactuals and those thoughts that create a more positive outcome are considered upward counterfactuals.

Which is an example of counter factual regret minimization?

Counter Factual Regret Minimisation, is a method that deals with scenarios composed of multiple steps, and how to detect errors (thus estimating regret) at every step. This article provides a general overview of the CFR algorithm and a working example of a tic-tac-toe game.

What does Wells and Gavanski mean by counterfactual thinking?

Wells and Gavanski (1989) studied counterfactual thinking in terms of mutability and causality. An event or antecedent is considered causal if mutating that event will lead to undoing the outcome. Some events are more mutable than others.

Which is the correct direction of a counterfactual statement?

The direction of the counterfactual statement is also indicative of which function may be used. Upward counterfactuals have a greater preparative function and focus on future improvement, while downward counterfactuals are used as a coping mechanism in an affective function.